Recommended Reading List for VA Compensation and Pension Exams
Post Traumatic Stress and other Mental Disorders
You can download this Psych C&P Examiners Reading List in PDF format.
- Updated on 11 October 2017.
This reading list was developed for C&P examiners, primarily psychologists and psychiatrists, who conduct VA compensation and pension exams with veterans.
- At the same time, some of the articles will be of interest to veterans law attorneys, veterans service officers, and veterans.
- Contact person for this Reading List is Mark D Worthen PsyD.
- Bitlinks (URLs that start with ‘bit.ly’) are cAsE sEnSiTiVe.
- Websites sometimes change the URL for articles, so if you discover that a link does not work please send a message to Mark.
How to find journal articles and books:
- If you are a VA employee, contact your local librarian and/or consult the VHA National Desktop Library. VA librarians are exceptionally helpful.
- Google Scholar – if an article is available online, Scholar will usually have a link to it.
- PILOTS (Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress) – Excellent database for articles on post traumatic stress disorder.
- Send an email to the corresponding author requesting a copy of the article. I usually write in the email, “this is for educational purposes only and I will not redistribute the article to others”, which is an honest statement and satisfies the requirements to respect publishers’ copyrights.
- If you know of a resource that should be added to this list, please send a message to Mark.
- This Psych C&P Examiners Reading List is not an official (or unofficial) Department of Veterans Affairs document.
JOURNAL ARTICLES – PSYCHOLOGY & PSYCHIATRY
Adler, A. B. & Castro, C. A. (2013). An occupational mental health model for the military. Military Behavioral Health, 1(1), 41-45. doi: 10.1080/21635781.2012.721063
Bonanno, G. A. & Mancini, A. D. (2012). Beyond resilience and PTSD: Mapping the heterogeneity of responses to potential trauma. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(1), 74-83.
Bornstein, R. F. (2016). Evidence-based psychological assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment 99(4), 435-445.
Bovin, M. J., Marx, B. P., & Schnurr, P. P. (2015). Evolving DSM diagnostic criteria for PTSD: Relevance for assessment and treatment. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry, 2(1), 86-98. doi:10.1007/s40501-015-0032-y
Chefetz, M. (2011). The psychological consultative examination for social security disability. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(3-4), 235-244. doi:10.1007/s12207-011-9112-5
Devine, P. G., Forscher, P. S., Austin, A. J., & Cox, W. T. L. (2012). Long-term reduction in implicit race bias: A prejudice habit-breaking intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(6), 1267-1278. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2012.06.003 | PMC3603687
Evans, F. B. (2011). Introduction to practice matters special section on VA compensation and pension exams for PTSD and other mental disorders. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(3-4), 169-170.
FitzGerald, C., & Hurst, S. (2017). Implicit bias in healthcare professionals: a systematic review. BMC Medical Ethics, 18(1). doi:10.1186/s12910-017-0179-8 | PMC5333436
Franklin, C., Repasky, S., Thompson, K., Shelton, S., & Uddo, M. (2002). Differentiating overreporting and extreme distress: MMPI-2 use with compensation-seeking veterans with PTSD. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79(2), 274-285.
Frueh, B.C., Hamner, M.B., Cahill, S.P., Gold, P.B., Hamlin, K.L. (2000). Apparent symptom overreporting in combat veterans evaluated for PTSD. Clinical Psychology Review, 20 (7), 853-885.
Frueh, B. C., et al. (2005). Documented combat exposure of US veterans seeking treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 467-472. [PDF]
Garbelman, J. L. (2017). Conducting veteran dependency and indemnity compensation exams: Establishing a nexus between mental health and death. Psychological Injury and Law, 10(2), 161-176. doi:10.1007/s12207-017-9284-8
Garbelman, J. L. (2017). The insanity exemption to other than honorable discharge for the purpose of claiming benefits: the role of the mental health examiner. Psychological Injury and Law, 10(2), 177-190. doi:10.1007/s12207-017-9285-7
Greenberg, S. A. & Shuman, D. W. (1997). Irreconcilable conflict between therapeutic and forensic roles. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 50–57. | http://bit.ly/therapeutic-vs-forensic-roles
Hall, R. C. W. & Hall, R. C. W. (2012). Compensation neurosis: A too quickly forgotten concept? The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 40(3), 390-398. | http://bit.ly/compensation-neurosis
Hall, W. J., et al., (2015). Implicit racial/ethnic bias among health care professionals and its influence on health care outcomes: a systematic review. American Journal of Public Health, 105(12), e60–e76. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2015.302903 | PMC4638275
Jackson, J. C., et al. (2011). Variation in practices and attitudes of clinicians assessing PTSD-related disability among Veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(5), 609–613. | doi:10.1002/jts.20688
Johansen, T. (2017). Core competencies in VA compensation and pension exams for PTSD and other mental disorders. Psychological Injury & Law. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s12207-017-9298-2
Maguen, S. & Litz, B. (2012). Moral injury in veterans of war. PTSD Research Quarterly, 23(1), 1-6. http://bit.ly/Moral-Injury
Marmar, C. R., Schlenger, W., Henn-Haase, C., Qian, M., Purchia, E., Li, M., . . . Kulka, R. A. (2015). Course of posttraumatic stress disorder 40 Years after the Vietnam War: Findings from the National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study. JAMA Psychiatry, published online July 22, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0803
Marx, B. P., Bovin, M. J., Szafranski, D. D., Engel-Rebitzer, E., Gallagher, M. W., Holowka, D. W., … Keane, T. M. (2016). Validity of posttraumatic stress disorder service connection status in Veterans Affairs electronic records of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 77(4), 517–522. doi:10.4088/JCP.14m09666
Marx, B. P., Engel-Rebitzer, E., Bovin, M. J., Parker-Guilbert, K. S., Moshier, S., Barretto, K., & Keane, T. M. (2017). The influence of veteran race and psychometric testing on Veterans Affairs posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) disability exam outcomes. Psychological Assessment, 29(6), 710-719. doi: 10.1037/pas0000378 [PDF]
Meyer, G. J., et al. (2001). Psychological testing and psychological assessment: A review of evidence and issues. American Psychologist, 56(2), 128-165. doi:10.1037//OOO3-O66X.56.2.128 [PDF]
Milchman, M. S. (2011). The roles of scientific and clinical epistemologies in forensic mental health assessments. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(2), 127-139. doi:10.1007/s12207-011-9104-5 | http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12207-011-9104-5
Moering, R. G. (2011). Military service records: Searching for the truth. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(3-4), 217-234. doi:10.1007/s12207-011-9114-3 | http://bit.ly/military-service-records
Morel, K. R. (2013). Cutoff scores for the Morel Emotional Numbing Test for PTSD: Considerations for use in VA mental health examinations. Psychological Injury and Law, 6(2), 138-143. doi:10.1007/s12207-013-9151-1
Murdoch, M., Sayer, N. A., Spoont, M. R., Rosenheck, R. A., Noorbaloochi, S., Griffin, J. M., Arbisi, P. A., & Hagel, E. M. (2011). Long-term outcomes of disability benefits in US veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(10), 1072-1080. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.105
Orme, D. R. (2012). Diagnosing PTSD: Lessons from neuropsychology. Military Psychology, 24, 397-413. doi:10.1080/08995605.2012.695262 | http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/mil/24/4/397/
Poyner, G. (2010). Psychological evaluations of veterans claiming PTSD disability with the Department of Veterans Affairs: A clinician’s viewpoint. Psychological Injury and Law, 3, 130– 132. doi:10.1007/s12207-010-9076-x
Ray, C. L. (2017). Practical use of MMPI-2-RF validity indicators in VA compensation and pension examinations. Psychological Injury and Law. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s12207-017-9289-3
Rodriguez, P., Holowka, D. W., & Marx, B. P. (2012). Assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder-related functional impairment: A review. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 49(5), 649-666. doi:10.1682/JRRD.2011.09.0162
Rosen, M. I. (2010). Compensation examinations for PTSD—an opportunity for treatment? Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 47, xv–xxii. doi:10.1682/JRRD.2010.04.0075
Rosen, M. I., et al. (2013). Racial differences in veterans’ satisfaction with examination of disability from posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatric Services, 64(4), 354-359. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.201100526
Rubenzer, S. (2009). Posttraumatic stress disorder: Assessing response style and malingering. Psychological Injury and Law, 2(2), 114–142. doi:10.1007/s12207-009-9045-4
Russo, A. C. (2013). Ethical, legal and risk management considerations in the neuropsychological assessment of veterans. Psychological Injury and Law, 6(1), 21–30. doi:10.1007/s12207-013-9145-z
Russo, A. C. (2014). Assessing veteran symptom validity. Psychological Injury and Law, 7(2), 178-190. doi:10.1007/s12207-014-9190-2 | http://bit.ly/vet-symptom-validity
Salgado, C. A. & Dike, C. C. (2015). Veterans Affairs’ problematic evaluation of a veteran’s claim for service-connected psychiatric disability. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 43(1), 119-121. http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/1/119
Speroff, T., et al. (2012). Impact of evidence-based standardized assessment on the disability clinical interview for diagnosis of service-connected PTSD: A cluster-randomized trial. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(6), 607-615. doi:10.1002/jts.21759
Stewart, R. W., Tuerk, P. W., Metzger, I. W., Davidson, T. M., & Young, J. (2016). A decision-tree approach to the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder: Engineering empirically rigorous and ecologically valid assessment measures. Psychological Services, 13(1), 1–9. doi:10.1037/ser0000069 | PMC5312769
Strasburger, L. G., Gutheil, T. G. & Brodsky, A. (1997). On wearing two hats: Role conflict in serving as both psychotherapist and expert witness. American Journal Of Psychiatry, 154(4), 448–456.
Steenkamp, M. M., & Litz, B. T. (2013). Psychotherapy for military-related posttraumatic stress disorder: Review of the evidence. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(1), 45–53. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2012.10.002 | PMID: 23123570
Weathers, F. W., Marx, B. P., Friedman, M. J., & Schnurr, P. P. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder in DSM-5: New criteria, new measures, and implications for assessment. Psychological Injury and Law, 7(2), 93-107. doi:10.1007/s12207-014-9191-1
Wisdom, N. M., Pastorek, N. J., Miller, B. I., Booth, J. E., Romesser, J. M., Linck, J. F., & Sim, A. H. (2013). PTSD and cognitive functioning: Importance of including performance validity testing. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 1–18. doi:10.1080/13854046.2013.863977
Worthen, M. D. & Moering, R. G. (2011). A practical guide to conducting VA compensation and pension exams for PTSD and other mental disorders. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(3-4), 187-216. doi:10.1007/s12207-011-9115-2 | http://bit.ly/ptsd-exams
Young, G. (2015). Towards balanced VA and SSA policies in psychological injury disability assessment. Psychological Injury and Law, 8(3), 200-218. doi:10.1007/s12207-015-9230-6
ARTICLES – POLICY & LEGAL
Allen, M. P. (2011). The law of veteran’s benefits 2008-2010: Significant developments, trends, and a glimpse into the future. Veterans Law Review, 3, 1-66. | http://www.bva.va.gov/docs/VLR_VOL3/1-Allen-TheLawofVeteransBenefitsPages1-66.pdf
Coyle, S., Ishizawar, A., & Seesel, H. (2012). The medical examiner as factfinder: the effect of the lay evidence doctrine on VA’s duty to assist in securing medical nexus opinions. Veterans Law Review, 4, 131-161. | http://www.bva.va.gov/docs/VLR_VOL4/AuthorsCopies4-Coyle-Ishizawar-Seesel.PDF
Gade, D. M. (2013). A better way to help veterans. National Affairs, 16(Summer), 53-69. | PDF
Moshiashwili, V. H. (2014). Ending the second “splendid isolation”? Veterans law at the Federal Circuit in 2013. American University Law Review, 63(4), 1437-1514. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2460774
Ogilvie, B. & Tamlyn, E. (2012). Coming full circle: How VBA can complement recent changes in DoD and VHA policy regarding military sexual trauma. Veterans Law Review, 4, 1-40. | http://www.bva.va.gov/docs/VLR_VOL4/AuthorsCopies1-OgilvieAndTamlin.PDF
Ridgway, J. D.(2009). Lessons the veterans benefits system must learn on gathering expert witness evidence. Federal Circuit Bar Journal, 18(3), 405-428. | http://ssrn.com/abstract=1500465
Ridgway, J. D. (2011). The splendid isolation revisited: Lessons from the history of veterans’ benefits before judicial review. Veterans Law Review, 3, 135-219. | http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1598344
Ridgway, J. D. (2012). Mind reading and the art of drafting medical opinions in veterans benefits claims. Psychological Injury and Law, 5(1), 72-87. doi:10.1007/s12207-012-9119-6 | http://bit.ly/Ridgway-med-opinions
Wandler, H. A. (2013). The role of culture in advocating for accurate diagnosis and rating of veterans psychological disabilities. Mental Health Law & Policy Journal, 2(1), 2-42. | http://bit.ly/CP-Exam-Culture
Young, G. & Drogin, E. Y. (2014). Psychological injury and law I: Causality, malingering, and PTSD. Mental Health Law & Policy Journal, 3(2), 373-417.
BOOKS & BOOK CHAPTERS
Cocchiarella, L. & Gunnar, B. J. A. (2001). Mental and behavioral disorders. In Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment, 5th Edition. Chicago: American Medical Association Press. [Although there is a 6th edition of this text, most jurisdictions still refer to the 5th edition]
Foote, W. E. (2008). Evaluations of individuals for disability in insurance and Social Security contexts. In R. Jackson (Ed.), Learning forensic assessment (international perspectives on forensic mental health) (pp. 449–479). New York: Taylor & Francis Group.
Gade, D. M. (2013). Avoiding perverse incentives in the wounded veteran’s recovery process. In T. Meyer (Ed.), Serving those who served: A wise giver’s guide to assisting veterans and military families (pp. 14-31). Washington, D.C.: The Philanthropy Roundtable. | PDF | Print | Kindle | iDevice | Nook | Google
Institute of Medicine and National Research Council (2007). PTSD compensation and military service. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. | http://bit.ly/IOM-PTSD-Compensation
Kennedy, C. H. & Zillmer, E. A. (Eds.) (2012). Military psychology: Clinical and operational applications, 2nd Edition. New York: Guilford Press.
Ridgway, J. (2015). Veterans law: Cases and theory. Saint Paul, MN: West Academic.
Rogers, R. (Ed.). (2008). Clinical assessment of malingering and deception (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.
Rogers, R. (2000). Handbook of diagnostic and structured interviewing. New York, NY: Guilford.
Weathers, F. W., Keane, T. M., & Foa, E. B. (2009). Assessment and diagnosis of adults. In E. B. Foa, T. M. Keane, M. J. Friedman & J. A. Cohen (Eds.), Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (2nd Ed.) (pp. 23-61). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Allen v. Principi, 237 F.3d 1368 (Fed. Cir. 2001)
Jones v. Shinseki, 23 Vet. App. 382 (2010). | http://bit.ly/Jones-v-Shinseki
Nieves-Rodriguez v. Peake, 22 Vet. App. 295 (2008). | http://bit.ly/Nieves-v-Peake
Nohr v. McDonald, No. 13-1321 (CAVC, October 30, 2014). | http://bit.ly/Nohr-v-McDonald
Mathis v. McDonald, 834 F. 3d 1347, 1356 (Fed. Cir. 2016) (Reyna, J., dissenting from denial of rehearing en banc)
Mathis v. McDonald, 834 F. 3d 1347 (Fed. Cir. 2016) (denial of hearing en banc), cert. denied, Mathis v. Shulkin, U.S. No. 16-677, slip op. (Sotomayor, J., statement) (June 26, 2017)
Mathis v. McDonald, 834 F. 3d 1347 (Fed. Cir. 2016) (denial of hearing en banc), cert. denied, Mathis v. Shulkin, U.S. No. 16-677, slip op. (Gorsuch, J., dissenting) (June 26, 2017)
Vazquez-Claudio v. Shinseki, 713 F.3d 112, 117 (2013).
EMAIL DISCUSSION LISTS
Association of VA Psychologist Leaders (AVAPL) Mental Health C&P Email Discussion List – Seems to be open to any interested professional whether or not they work for VA, although one should check with AVAPL regarding list membership. Send request to join to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Forensic Mental Health Disability Evaluators Email Discussion List | http://bit.ly/Forensic-MH-Disability-List
GUIDELINES – PSYCHIATRY & PSYCHOLOGY
American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (2008). AAPL practice guideline for the forensic evaluation of psychiatric disability. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 36(4), S3–S50. | http://bit.ly/AAPL-Disability
American Bar Association/American Psychological Association (2008). Assessment of older adults with diminished capacity: A handbook for psychologists. Washington, D.C.: Authors.
American Psychological Association (2013). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychology. American Psychologist, 68(1), 7-19. doi:10.1037/a0029889
Bush, S. S., Heilbronner, R. L., & Ruff, R. M. (2014). Psychological assessment of symptom and performance validity, response bias, and malingering: Official position of the Association for Scientific Advancement in Psychological Injury and Law. Psychological Injury and Law, 7(3), 197-205. doi:10.1007/s12207-014-9198-7
Varela, J. G., & Conroy, M. A. (2012). Professional competencies in forensic psychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43(5), 410-421.
NEWSPAPER, MAGAZINE, & BLOG ARTICLES
Editorial (2014, November 18). Revamp VA disability benefits. Los Angeles Times.
Hernandez, C. (2014, February 10). PTSD: Fakers and frauds and WTAF? Breach. Bang. Clear.
Hernandez, C. (2014, February 26). PTSD, reading comprehension and the great American love of victimhood. Breach. Bang. Clear.
Hernandez, C. (2016, February 21). Thieves and liars: PTSD fakers and the VA. Breach. Bang. Clear.
Huang, D. (2014, October 27). VA disability claims soar: Some see higher fraud risk as more vets seek compensation, overloading doctors. Wall Street Journal.
Huang, D. (2015, May 11). Automated system often unjustly boosts veterans’ disability benefits. Wall Street Journal.
Huang, D. (2016, July 15). Trying to serve more veterans faster, VA opens door to disability fraud. Wall Street Journal.
McMath, William. (2015). My education at the VA: C&P exams and PTSD. – Fifty well-written, illuminating blog posts written by a former C&P psychologist.
Zarembo, A. (2014, July 12). With U.S. encouragement, VA disability claims rise sharply. Los Angeles Times.
Zarembo, A. (2014, August 3). As disability awards grow, so do concerns with veracity of PTSD claims. Los Angeles Times.
Zarembo, A. (2014, September 6). Seniors boost number of veterans deemed unemployable. Los Angeles Times.
Zarembo, A. (2014, November 16). Disability system for veterans strays far from its official purpose. Los Angeles Times.
Zarembo, A. (2015, November 23). VA is buried in a backlog of never-ending veterans disability appeals. Los Angeles Times.
VA PUBLICATIONS & RESOURCES
The DMA (Office of Disability and Medical Assessment) mandatory and elective training courses are available on VA’s Talent Management System (TMS) at https://www.tms.va.gov/learning/user/login.jsp. There is a separate DMA Blackboard site for contract examiners at http://vaees.blackboard.com.
Department of Veterans Affairs (2002). C&P clinicians guide. Washington, D.C.: Author. [The VA reportedly no longer considers the C&P Clinicians’ Guide to be authoritative.]
Disability Benefits Questionnaires (DBQs) – Public VA website with list of all DBQs, downloads of publicly available DBQs, and related information. | http://bit.ly/DBQ-Info
Watson, P., McFall, M., McBrine, C., Schnurr, P. P., Friedman, M. J., Keane, T., & Hamblen, J. L. (2002). Best practice manual for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compensation and pension examinations. Washington, D.C.: Department of Veterans Affairs. [The VA no longer considers the Best Practice Manual to be authoritative.]1
MST SharePoint (VA intranet only) – In particular, see:
- MST C&P exams (PowerPoint presentation)
- Adjudicating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Claims Based on Military Sexual Trauma (VBA Fast Letter)
- MST Research References to Support C&P Opinions (Text file with extensive citations to the research literature)
National Center for PTSD Excellent resource! See:
- PTSD Assessment.
- Subscribe to the PTSD Monthly Update, Clinician’s Trauma Update, and PTSD Research Quarterly.
- Use the PILOTS Database to search for PTSD-related journal articles.
- Consult with experts via the PTSD Consultation Program (for professionals who treat PTSD).
U.S. Military information on About.com – You have to wade through a lot of advertising, but Rod Powers provides quality information. Scroll down the web page to US MILITARY CATEGORIES on the left-side column for the info you need. (A good ad-blocker makes viewing websites like about.com much easier. I use Fair AdBlocker.)
Veterans Law Library – Best source of veterans law updates and info.
Vietnam-era MOS codes
It’s often hard to find Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) codes from past decades. These three websites have them for the 1960s to early 1970s:
Vietnam-era MOS codes – [ichiban1.org] (all branches)
Vietnam-era MOS – [leatherneck.com] (Marine Corps only)
MOS Codes in the Vietnam era – [ed-thelen.org] (all branches).
Veterans Benefits for PTSD – Overview
Wikipedia – Veterans Benefits for PTSD in the United States – Succinct, well-referenced overview of VA disability compensation benefits for post-traumatic stress and other mental disorders.
You can download this Psych Examiners Reading List for VA Compensation and Pension Exams in PDF format.
1. Daniel Huang, VA Shift Opens Door to Disability Fraud, WALL ST. J., July 15, 2016 at A1; published online as Trying to Serve More Veterans Faster, VA Opens Door to Disability Fraud (July 14, 2016, 11:51 a.m. ET) (A VBA spokesperson indicated that the Best Practice Manual had been written before the adoption of a streamlined benefits documentation system and that the Manual was not “formal VA training.”)
2. Note that the CFR numbering system is rather counter-intuitive. For example, if you are looking for the fear of hostile military or terrorist activity regulation, which is 38 C.F.R. §3.304(f)(3), on the eCFR website, under Title 38, Chapter 1, Part 3, you might think to click the §3.3 link to find §3.304.
Unfortunately, that does not work.
If you scroll down the page and notice §3.29, §3.30, and then §3.31, you might understandably wonder, “Where did §3.304 go? Shouldn’t it be after §3.30? Or should I click the link for §3.30 to find it?
Unfortunately, that will not work either.
It works best to think of the section numbers as if they were four-digit whole numbers, i.e., remove the decimal point, so that you read them as follows:
Thinking about the sections as four-digit whole numbers makes it easier to locate 3304 [38 C.F.R. §3.304]. For example, thinking of it this way, you do not look for §3.304 as being in §3.3 because 3304 is not a subsection, so to speak, of 3300. Therefore, to find §3.304 you scroll past §3.30  until you get to §3.304 .
Please note that my suggestion does not work perfectly, for example, §3.1  is not the same as §3.100 . Thinking of the section numbers as four-digit whole numbers simply helps you ‘keep moving down the page’ to find your section; it does not perfectly correspond with the rather confusing CFR numbering system.
Note: This Psych C&P Examiners Reading List is not an official (or unofficial) Department of Veterans Affairs document.